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EXACT® and E-RS™ Translations

  • Methods used to translate the EXACT® followed the Principles of Good Translation and Cultural Adaptation Practice as suggested by ISPOR in 2005.
  • These methods include:
    • Development of a definition document to guide all translations;
    • Dual forward translation; reconciliation; dual back translation; back translation review; harmonization;
    • Cognitive testing with COPD patients in each target country;
    • Clinician review as-needed to verify terminology;
    • Final proofing, including diacritics.
  • This approach is designed to yield translated versions of the EXACT that are conceptually equivalent to the English source version and easily understood by the target population.
  • We are pleased to partner with FACIT Translation Services (FACITtrans) on all EXACT translations.
  • To assure standardized translations, users are not permitted to translate the EXACT without prior, written consent of Evidera.
  • Below is a list of EXACT translations and associated countries.
    • Additional translations are in development and will be posted upon completion.
    • Evidera does not recommend using translations that have not been evaluated through cognitive interviewing with patients from the target-country.
    • To assure consistency, all translations are on file with Evidera and should be obtained from Evidera.

How to Acquire Translations

  • Evidera maintains copyright to the EXACT and E-RS™ in English and all translations.
  • Translations can be obtained through the EXACT licensing procedure.
  • Each translated version includes certification of the procedures used to assure conceptual equivalence.
  • To assure standardized translations, users are not permitted to translate the EXACT without prior, written consent of Evidera.
  • Please contact exactpro@evidera.com if you have questions related to developing a new EXACT translation.

 

EXACT/E-RS Certified Translations as of March 2016
Languages Countries Tested1 Languages Countries Tested1
Afrikaans South Africa Macedonian Macedonia
Arabic (Universal) Israel Malay Malaysia, Singapore
Bengali India Malayalam India
Bosnian Bosnia Marathi India
Bulgarian Bulgaria North Sesotho South Africa
Cebuano Philippines Norwegian Norway
Chinese (Simplified) Chinaa, Malaysia Polish Poland
Chinese (Traditional) Taiwan, Hong Kong Portuguese (Universal) Brazil, Portugal
Croatian Croatia Punjabi India
Czech Czech Republic Romanian Romania
Danish Denmark Russian Russiaa, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Israel, Estonia
Dutch (Universal) Belgium, the Netherlands Serbian Serbia
English (Universal) USa, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Israel, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, UK Sesotho South Africa
Estonian Estonia Slovak Slovakia
Finnish Finland Slovene Slovenia
French (Universal) Francea, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland Spanish (Universal) USa,b, Spaina,b, Mexicob, Chilea,b, Argentinab, Peru, Colombia, Guatemala
German Germanya, Austria, Switzerland Swedish Sweden
Greek Greece Tagalog Philippines
Gujarati India Tamil India, Malaysia
Hebrew Israel Telugu India
Hiligaynon/Ilonggo Philippines Thai Thailand
Hindi India Turkish Turkey
Hungarian Hungary Ukrainian Ukraine
Italian Italy Urdu India
Japanese Japan Vietnamese Vietnam
Kannada India Xhosa South Africa
Korean Korea Zulu South Africa
Latvian Latvia
Lithuanian Lithuania

1 Cognitive interviews
a Interviews included PDA usability assessment.
b Three region-specific translations were initially developed and tested with patients. After further review of the Spanish translations by a team of linguists from each of the respective countries where Spanish versions were tested, it was determined that the 3 Spanish versions could be harmonized into 1 universal Spanish version. The Spanish (Universal) version was subsequently tested in Peru, Colombia, and Guatemala.

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